Toronto History - To Confederation

Scarborough was named by lieutenant governor of Upper Canada John Graves Simcoe's wife Elizabeth Simcoe, who thought the bluffs reminder her of England's Scarborough, located on the coast of North Yorkshire. In the 1830s, a colonial coach road was built running from Windsor along the Thames River and the northern shore of Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River, all the way to Quebec. The section between York and Kingston was known as "the Kingston Road" was the main throughfare for early Scarborough.

York was incorporated as the City of Toronto in 1834, with its original native name, when it had 9,000 residents. The city had some escaped southern slaves and Upper Canada banned slavery in 1834. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto, and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against a corrupt and ineffective British colonial government, which (though unsuccessful as a revolt) led to a number of governmental reforms. The city grew rapidly over the 1800s as a major destination for immigrants, including the Irish n the late 1840s, following their famine. By 1851, the Irish - mostly Catholic -- were the largest single ethnic group in the city. The existing Scottish and English population also welcomed smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants.

Queens Park-Legislature Building Toronto was twice (briefly) the capital of the united Province of Canada in 1849-1852, and again in 1856-1858, after which Quebec was the capital until 1866, when Ottawa became the Capital of Canada.] Toronto has been the capital of Upper Canada from 1793, and became the capital of the new Province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867. The Ontario Legislature is located at Queen's Park, and Toronto is also the location of Government House, the residence of the vice-regal representative of the Crown.

Along the Don River, there was an expansion of industrial capacity including brewers, distillers, brickworks, and textile manufacturers. This led to an expansion of employment for those moving to the city. By the end of the century Toronto had grown to about 200,000 residents.

As Toronto expanded to Scarborough's west, residential housing was built along the Kingston Road and Danforth Road in Scarborough.

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